Policosanol Information

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According to a recent article by Smart Publications:

Policosanol:
Start Improving Your Cholesterol Today . . .

• Reduce LDL Cholesterol up to 29%
• Increase HDL Cholesterol up to 15%
• Reduce Total Cholesterol up to 21%

When your doctor orders a blood lipid panel and discovers that your cholesterol levels are too high for comfort, there’s a good chance you’ll be put on a cholesterol-lowering medication such as bile acid sequestrants (WelChol, Questran and Colestid) or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) (Lipator, Baycol, Lescol, Mevacor, Pravachol and Zocor). These drugs block the production of cholesterol in the liver itself. They lower LDL, the “bad” cholesterol, and have a mild effect in raising HDL, the “good” cholesterol.

50% of Americans have high cholesterol
According to NDS Health, a health-care information services company based in Atlanta, more than 110 million prescriptions were written for statin drugs in 2001. But they’re expensive … and they’re not without risk.

“These new lipid drugs continue to be expensive,” says Dr. Francis Solano Jr., president and chief medical officer of Community Medicine Inc. in Pittsburgh. “Statins can be around $60 to $120 per month.”

Statin hazard
Cholesterol-lowering drugs can result in serious side effects. In a clinical advisory issued recently, the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute warned doctors about possible serious adverse effects and factors that could increase the risk of statin-caused muscle disorders.

In fact, in January 2002 Bayer Pharmaceutical announced that its cholesterol drug Baycol has been linked to approximately 100 deaths since its withdrawal from the market in August 2001, and Baycol was recalled after it was linked to about 40 deaths in the US. Bayer is currently facing several lawsuits from patients who were injured while taking the drug. 3

New York Times health writer Jane E. Brody recently reported (December 10, 2002) that last summer an 82-year-old Kansas woman died as a result of an undetected muscle disease caused by the statin she had been taking for years to control her cholesterol.

During the entire time she was taking it, the woman had muscle pains that doctors never attributed to the drug. “She even had a shoulder operation, which did nothing, of course, to cure the drug-induced pain that might have been correctly diagnosed through a simple blood test,” wrote Brody. “Then she was mistreated with an anti-fungal agent for skin lesions that actually resulted, not from a fungus, but from the muscle breakdown caused by the drug.”

It’s been shown that when anti-fungals are combined with statins, they can greatly increase the risk and severity of muscle disorders. “Within three months, the woman’s condition worsened and she became so weak she could not stand or breathe on her own. Two weeks later, she was dead,” reported Brody.

Statins may also cause a liver disorder in about one percent of patients.

Public Citizen Calls for Stronger Warnings on Statins
Public Citizen, a consumer advocacy group, has petitioned the FDA for stronger warnings on all statin drugs in the wake of the August 2001 recall of Baycol. The petition asks the FDA to include a warning that muscle pain or weakness can lead to muscle damage.

What’s wrong with this picture?
Consider this metaphor: You’re flying an airplane and one of the meters indicates that the airplane is going down rapidly and that you’re going to plunge to the ground in minutes. You pull out your handgun and shoot the meter, destroying not only the meter but causing damage to other electrical equipment. There! Problem solved, right? Obviously not.

The situation with statin drugs is strikingly similar yet apparently this isn’t obvious to the conventional medical system. Cholesterol is just a risk factor, one of many. Sure, you’d like to see that high reading come down, but – and here is the most important message of this article – you want that reading to come down for the right reasons. You want your cholesterol to come down as a result of an overall improvement in your health.

Continue reading to find out how Policosanol does exactly that. It is a safe, natural substance that improves overall health … and you’ll really see those cholesterol readings improve.

Policosanol: the new treatment for cholesterol management and reduced heart disease risk
What is it?

Policosanol is a mixture of alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane, whose main component is octacosanol. Policosanol has been studied extensively for the past 10 years and several human trials have been published in medical journals in North America and throughout the world. The clinical trials on humans have clearly demonstrated that Policosanol is safe, effective, and without side effects.

Policosanol is actually not one thing, but a generic name for a highly concentrated and standardized mixture of five higher primary aliphatic alcohols that occur together naturally in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) wax. Although there are a few different forms of Policosanol (rice and beeswax), it is important to note that the results from the clinical trials were obtained using ONLY the Policosanol derived from sugar cane wax.

The studies on Policosanol are extremely impressive-and you’ll see why. Most of them have been done in Cuba and since Cuban researchers are still working on getting the word out through scientific publications and peer-reviewed journals, Policosanol has yet to become a household word like statins-which is why we’re so pleased to be at the forefront of bringing this information to you.

How does Policosanol work?

Because of the way that statin drugs work, they all have significant dose-related toxicity. If they inhibit the cholesterol-producing enzyme too much they can cause a variety of dangerous side effects. There is also growing concern among some scientists that statin drugs may have unknown long-term side effects, due to their mechanism of action in lowering cholesterol.

Amazingly, Policosanol has shown itself to be as effective as statin drugs for many of their varied beneficial effects WITHOUT showing any toxic effects. This is believed to be due to their different ways of helping control cholesterol levels. While statin drugs directly inhibit the cholesterol-producing enzyme, Policosanol instead seems to regulate the production of the enzyme to lower, more favorable levels.4,5 Policosanol also enhances our body’s ability to remove and process LDL cholesterol from the blood and cells. 6

Stops cardiovascular disease in its tracks

One of the most exciting effects of statin therapy is its ability to slow down or even reverse the progression of cardiovascular disease. This is often seen independent of the reduction in blood cholesterol levels. Research on Policosanol has provided evidence that it too can dramatically prevent, slow down, or even reverse the progression of cardiovascular disease. 7-9

Here are some highlights of the dozens of studies that have been published:

Cuban researchers found 5-20 mg daily of Policosanol to be effective at improving serum lipid profiles 10-21 by:

  • Decreasing total cholesterol
  • Decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the “bad” cholesterol
  • Increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the “good” cholesterol
  • Decreasing triglyerides

Policosanol was given to a large variety of patients with single health complaints and different combinations of disease. The outstanding common experience they all shared is this: ALL had improved lipid profiles after they took Policosanol. Policosanol has been tested on:

  • Healthy volunteers… and patients with:
  • High cholesterol
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Type 2 hypercholesterimia (an inherited genetic condition that results in elevated LDL levels beginning at birth, and possible heart attacks at an early age)
  • Hypertension and high cholesterol
  • Both high cholesterol and abnormal liver function tests
  • Coronary patients
  • Postmenopausal women with high cholesterol

German scientists amazed by results
A team of German scientists reviewed the literature on placebo-controlled lipid-lowering studies using Policosanol published in peer-reviewed journals as well as studies investigating its mechanism of action and its clinical pharmacology. This is what they found: At doses of 10 to 20 mg per day, Policosanol lowers total cholesterol by 17% to 21% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 21% to 29% and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 8% to 15%. 22

Postmenopausal women have excellent results

When Policosonal was tested on postmenopausal women who had high cholesterol the results were equally impressive. 56 women were divided into two groups. One took a placebo and the other took 5mg of Policosanol for 8 weeks. For the second 8 weeks, the dosage was elevated to 10 mg of Policosanol.

Not only was Policosanol safe and well tolerated by the women, when it was compared to the women’s baseline and the placebo group at both dosages of 5 and 10 mg a day it significantly:

  • Decreased LDL-cholesterol 17.3% and 26.7%, respectively
  • Decreased total cholesterol by 12.9% and 19.5%
  • Decreased the ratios of LDL-cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 17.2% and 26.5%
  • Decreased total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol by 16.3% and 21.0%
  • Raised HDL-cholesterol levels by 7.4% at the end of the study. No significant changes occurred in the lipid profile of the placebo group. 23

Policosanol reduces blood lipids in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk

There’s no doubt that patients with type II hypercholsterolemia (an inherited genetic condition that results in elevated LDL levels beginning at birth, and may result in heart attacks at an early age), have a very difficult time living without the fear of heart attack or stroke. In one Cuban study, after 6 weeks on a lipid-lowering diet, 179 older patients randomly received a placebo or Policosanol at doses of 5 mg followed by 10 mg per day for successive 12-week periods of each dose.

The results? Policosanol (5 and 10 mg/d):

  • Reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 16.9% and 24.4%, respectively
  • Reduced total cholesterol by 12.8% and 16.2%
  • Significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) by 14.6% and 29.1%

Policosanol, but not the placebo, significantly improved overall cardiovascular health and stamina in these patients, and there were no adverse side effects! 24

Other studies which tested tolerability and effectiveness of Policosanol on patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia 25, patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolaemia 26, with hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin dependent diabetes, all had similar excellent results.

Policosanol outperforms most cholesterol-lowering drugs

In fact, Policosanol performed better than or equal to other cholesterol-lowering drugs, including Simvastatin, Pravastatin, Lovastatin, Probucol and Acipimox with fewer side effects. 27 Daily doses of 10 mg of Policosanol have been shown to be equally effective in lowering total or LDL cholesterol as the same dose of simvastatin or pravastatin.28,29

Is more effective than lovastatin in diabetics
Policosanol at 10 mg/day is more effective in normalizing HDL-cholesterol and has a better safety and tolerability profile than lovastatin at 20 mg/day in patients with high cholesterol and non-insulin dependent diabetes. 30 Benefits beyond lowering cholesterol Although scientists still don’t know exactly how Policosanol works, study after study has shown it to decrease several other risk factors of cardiovascular disease:

  • LDL oxidation 31,32
  • Platelet aggregation 33, 34
  • Endothelial damage 35
  • It also helps diminish the symptoms of intermittent claudication (peripheral arterial disease), a potentially disabling condition characterized by attacks of pain or fatigue in the calf, thigh or buttock. 36

Treadmill test is easier with Policosanol!

If you’re a heart patient, you’ve already endured the dreaded treadmill test. And if you’ve never taken it, you’ve probably heard about it. There was actually a study done following 45 heart patients with myocardial ischemia to see how Policosanol would affect their treadmill performance. The groups that took Policosanol for a 20-month period did significantly better on their treadmill tests than the group that took a placebo- due to an improvement in their myocardial ischemia-and also had improved lipid profiles. 37
Proven safe!
Unlike statins, which become increasingly toxic with higher doses, Policosanol achieves its maximum effect at very low doses and taking more is neither more effective nor more toxic. In fact, Policosanol has undergone unusually extensive testing for a dietary supplement to prove its safety. Animal toxicity studies doses up to 1500 times the normal human dose (on the basis of body weight) have shown no negative effects on carcinogenesis,38, 39 reproduction, growth, and development, 40,41 including a study on three generations of rats. 42

In studies where it has been given to animals (rats and dogs) in megadoses, no drug-related toxicity was shown, and there was no negative effect on the animals (including body weight, food consumption and blood biochemistry) when compared with the control group. 43-45

Prevention is the best cure

Abnormal cholesterol levels are one of the causes of atherosclerosis, which diminishes the supply of blood to the heart and eventually leads to heart attacks. Atherosclerosis affects blood vessels throughout your body and also contributes to angina (chest pain), intermittent claudication (pain caused by blockage of arteries in the legs), and stroke.

Reduce cholesterol with Policosanol and see the amazing results!

Now it’s easier than ever to control your blood cholesterol with Policosanol!

We’ve spent a lot of time and effort searching for the very best product available and are proud to recommend it. You won’t find this high-quality product on the shelf of your natural foods store. And you won’t find another product that will have the amazing success rate as Policosanol for normalizing your blood lipids and lowering your risk of heart disease, without ANY side effects!

A Cholesterol Primer

Total Cholesterol – HDL Cholesterol – LDL Cholesterol – Triglycerides

Cholesterol is carried in blood in the form of substances called lipoproteins. Cardiovascular risk can be assessed by measuring total blood cholesterol, as well as the proportions of the different types of lipoproteins.

  1. Total cholesterol is the most common measure of blood cholesterol and the only number many people get from their doctor. Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. A total cholesterol reading less than 200 mg/dL means a lower risk of heart disease, which everyone should try to attain. (Although cholesterol is not the only marker for heart disease risk. See “How much do you really know about heart disease?” 200-239 is borderline high cholesterol, and 240 and over is high cholesterol.
    Lipoproteins
  2. HDL cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol, helps carry cholesterol out of the body, including cholesterol deposited inside blood vessels, where it may block the flow of blood. If there is too much cholesterol for the HDLs to pick up, or an inadequate supply of HDLs, cholesterol may aggregate into plaque groups that block arteries. Those blockages are the main cause of heart attacks. Remember that higher is healthier. A reading of less than 40 is low, at or greater than 60 is high, and having a level of 60 or greater is considered a “negative” risk factor that can offset another risk factor.
  3. LDL cholesterol, the “bad” cholesterol, hauls cholesterol from the liver to all cells in the body. Remember that lower is healthier. A reading of less than 100 is optimal; 100-129 is near or above optimal; 130-159, borderline high; 160-189, high; 190 or greater is very high.
    Rule of thumb: You want to raise your HDL and lower your LDL.
  4. Triglycerides make up most of the body’s fat, and are the storehouse for energy. Edible oils from seeds, egg yolk and animal fats also are composed mainly of triglycerides. They may not be as corrosive as LDL, but excess triglycerides exacerbate heart disease potential when they oxidize and damage artery linings or induce blood cells to clump. A reading of under 100 is optimal; under 200 is normal; 200-400 is borderline high; over 400 is high.

When high triglycerides and low HDL occur together, risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, heart and kidney failure and other degenerative diseases increase.

In fact, another up-and-coming index of heart disease risk is your triglyceride-to-HDL ratio. A ratio of less than 2 is considered good.

The best ways to lower your triglyceride levels are to reduce your intake of carbohydrates, especially sugar and starch foods; and take a high-quality fish oil product.

References:

  1. Antti Jula, MD, PhD; Jukka Marniemi, PhD; Risto Huupponen, MD, PhD; Arja Virtanen, MSc; Merja Rastas, MSc; Tapani Rnnemaa, MD, PhD “Effects of Diet and Simvastatin on Serum Lipids, Insulin, and Antioxidants in Hypercholesterolemic Men.” JAMA Feb. 6, 2002, Vol. 287 #5, pp. 598-605. No. 5.
    Abstract
  2. >http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/DailyNews/zetia021029.html
  3. http://www.baycol-law.com/pdf/20020118_MSNBC_cholesterol_drug.pdf
  4. Menendez R, Amor AM, Rodeiro I, et al, Policosanol modulates HMG-CoA reductase activity in cultured fibroblasts. Arch Med Res 2001 Jan-Feb;32(1):8-12.
    Abstract
  5. Menendez R, Amor AM, Gonzalez RM, Fraga V, Mas R. Effect of policosanol on the hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis of normocholesterolemic rats. Biol Res 1996;29(2):253-7
    Abstract
  6. Menendez R, Fernandez SI, Del Rio A, et al, Policosanol inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and enhances low density lipoprotein processing in cultured human fibroblasts. Biol Res 1994;27(3-4):199-203
    Abstract
  7. Janikula M, Policosanol: a new treatment for cardiovascular disease? Altern Med Rev 2002 Jun;7(3):203-17
    Abstract
  8. Arruzazabala ML, Noa M, Menendez R, et al, Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia. Braz J Med Biol Res 2000 Jul;33(7):835-40
    Abstract
  9. Rodriguez-Echenique C, Mesa R, Mas R, Noa M, et al, Effects of policosanol chronically administered in male monkeys (Macaca arctoides). Food Chem Toxicol 1994 Jun;32(6):565-75
    Abstract
  10. Mirkin A, Mas R, Martinto M, Boccanera R, Robertis A, Poudes R, Fuster A, Lastreto E, Yanez M, Irico G, McCook B, Farre A. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2001;21(1):31-41.
    Abstract
  11. Janikula M. Policosanol: a new treatment for cardiovascular disease? Altern Med Rev 2002 Jun;7(3):203-17.
    Abstract
  12. Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002 Feb;143(2):356-65.
    Abstract
  13. Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez JC, Illnait J, Fernandez L, Alvarez E. Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001 Mar;56(3):M186-92.
    Abstract
  14. Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez JC, Fernandez L, Illnait J, Lopez E. Effects of policosanol on older patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolaemia. Drugs R D 2002;3(3):159-72.
    Abstract
  15. Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez JC. Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and tolerability to treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14(1):27-33.
    Abstract
  16. Crespo N, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez J, Castano G. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19(4):117-27.
    Abstract
  17. Prat H, Roman O, Pino E. Comparative effects of policosanol and two HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on type II hypercholesterolemia [Article in Spanish] Rev Med Chil 1999 Mar;127(3):286-94
    Abstract
  18. Mas R, Castano G, Illnait J, Fernandez L, Fernandez J, Aleman C, Pontigas V, Lescay M. Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999 Apr;65(4):439-47.
    Abstract
  19. Canetti M, Moreira M, Mas R, Illnait J, Fernandez L, Fernandez J, Diaz E, Castano G. A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinaemia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995;15(4):159-65.
    Abstract
  20. Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez JC. Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and tolerability to treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14(1):27-33.
    Abstract
  21. Arruzazabala ML, Molina V, Mas R, Fernandez L, Carbajal D, Valdes S, Castano G Antiplatelet effects of policosanol (20 and 40 mg/day) in healthy volunteers and dyslipidaemic patients. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2002 Oct;29(10):891-7.
    Abstract
  22. Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002 Feb;143(2):356-65.
    Abstract
  23. Mirkin A, Mas R, Martinto M, Boccanera R, Robertis A, Poudes R, Fuster A, Lastreto E, Yanez M, Irico G, McCook B, Farre A. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2001;21(1):31-41.
    Abstract
  24. Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez JC, Illnait J, Fernandez L, Alvarez E. Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001 Mar;56(3):M186-92.
    Abstract
  25. Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez JC. Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and tolerability to treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14(1):27-33.
    Abstract
  26. Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez JC, Fernandez L, Illnait J, Lopez E. Effects of policosanol on older patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolaemia. Drugs R D 2002;3(3):159-72.
    Abstract
  27. Janikula M. Policosanol: a new treatment for cardiovascular disease? Altern Med Rev 2002 Jun;7(3):203-17.
    Abstract
  28. Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002 Feb;143(2):356-65.
    Abstract
  29. Castano G, Mas R, Arruzazabala ML, Noa M, Illnait J, Fernandez JC, Molina V, Menendez A.Effects of policosanol and pravastatin on lipid profile, platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older hypercholesterolemic patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19(4):105-16.
    Abstract
  30. Crespo N, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez J, Castano G. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19(4):117-27.
    Abstract
  31. Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002 Feb;143(2):356-65.
    Abstract
  32. Menendez R, Mas R, Amor AM, Gonzalez RM, Fernandez JC, Rodeiro I, Zayas M, Jimenez S. Effects of policosanol treatment on the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) isolated from healthy volunteers to oxidative modification in vitro. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000 Sep;50(3):255-62.
    Abstract
  33. Arruzazabala ML, Molina V, Mas R, Fernandez L, Carbajal D, Valdes S, Castano G. Antiplatelet effects of policosanol (20 and 40 mg/day) in healthy volunteers and dyslipidaemic patients. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2002 Oct;29(10):891-7.
    Abstract
  34. Castano G, Mas R, Arruzazabala ML, Noa M, Illnait J, Fernandez JC, Molina V, Menendez A.Effects of policosanol and pravastatin on lipid profile, platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older hypercholesterolemic patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19(4):105-16.
    Abstract
  35. Ibid.
  36. Castano G, Mas Ferreiro R, Fernandez L, Gamez R, Illnait J, Fernandez C. A long-term study of policosanol in the treatment of intermittent claudication. Angiology 2001 Feb;52(2):115-25
    Abstract
  37. Stusser R, Batista J, Padron R, Sosa F, Pereztol O. Long-term therapy with policosanol improves treadmill exercise-ECG testing performance of coronary heart disease patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998 Sep;36(9):469-73.
    Abstract
  38. Aleman CL, Puig MN, Elias EC, Ortega CH, Guerra IR, Ferreiro RM, Brinis F.Carcinogenicity of policosanol in mice: an 18-month study. Food Chem Toxicol 1995 Jul;33(7):573-8.
    Abstract
  39. Aleman CL, Mas Ferreiro R, Noa Puig M, Rodeiro Guerra I, Hernandez Ortega C, Capote A. Carcinogenicity of policosanol in Sprague Dawley rats: a 24 month study. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1994;14(5):239-49.
    Abstract
  40. Janikula M. Policosanol: a new treatment for cardiovascular disease? Altern Med Rev 2002 Jun;7(3):203-17.
    Abstract
  41. Rodriguez MD, Garcia H. Evaluation of peri- and post-natal toxicity of Policosanol in rats. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1998;18(1):1-7. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1994;14(3):107-13
    Abstract
  42. Rodriguez MD, Garcia H. Teratogenic and reproductive studies of policosanol in the rat and rabbit. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1994;14(3):107-13
    Abstract
  43. Rodriguez MD, Sanchez M, Garcia H.Multigeneration reproduction study of policosanol in rats. Toxicol Lett 1997 Feb 7;90(2-3):97-106.
    Abstract
  44. Mesa AR, Mas R, Noa M, Hernandez C, Rodeiro I, Gamez R, Garcia M, Capote A, Aleman CL. Toxicity of policosanol in beagle dogs: one-year study. Toxicol Lett 1994 Aug;73(2):81-90.
    Abstract
  45. Aleman CL, Mas R, Hernandez C, Rodeiro I, Cerejido E, Noa M, Capote A, Menendez R, Amor A, Fraga V, et al. A 12-month study of policosanol oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Toxicol Lett 1994 Jan;70(1):77-87
    Abstract
  46. Vella, C.A., Kravitz, L., & Janot, J.M. (2001). A review of the impact of exercise on cholesterol levels. IDEA Health & Fitness Source, 19, 10, p.
  47. Retrieved March 26, 2002 from Expanded Academic ASAP.
  48. Lane, Jane, “Cholesterol Conundrum,” Energy Times Feb. 1999
  49. www.cholesteroldrugsfyi.com
  50. Blake, G.H. & Triplett, L.C. (1995). Management of Hypercholesterolemia. American Family Physician, 51, 5, p. 1157-1169. Retrieved March 26, 2002 from Expanded Academic ASAP.
    Abstract

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