Dietary cholesterol: What to know
Dietary cholesterol refers to cholesterol that enters the body through foods such as red meats, eggs, and fatty dairy products. It may not impact blood cholesterol as much as once thought, according to the American Heart Association (AHA).
A scientific advisory from the AHA indicates there is no proven link between the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dietary cholesterol.
However, a heart-healthy diet and lifestyle may help a person maintain optimum cardiovascular health. Individuals can work with their doctor to manage any personal factors that could affect their cholesterol levels.
Blood cholesterol and dietary cholesterol
Cholesterol is a fatty, waxy substance created by the liver. It has several purposes, including making hormones and vitamin D and carrying them through the body via the bloodstream. It also contributes to cell membrane structure.
Generally, the body makes enough cholesterol to satisfy its needs. However, a person’s diet may contribute additional cholesterol, depending on the food included in the diet.
Types of cholesterol
There are two different types of cholesterol:
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: This is sometimes called “bad cholesterol.” It is made by the body and exists in some food sources such as red meat and dairy products. It helps carry cholesterol through the bloodstream. If there is too much LDL cholesterol in a person’s blood, it may attach to the walls of the blood vessels and form plaques. These plaques may narrow the usable space in the blood vessel and reduce blood flow.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: This is sometimes called “good cholesterol” and may have a protective effect on the heart. It picks up extra cholesterol to carry it out of the bloodstream and back to the liver, where it may be recycled or eliminated.
Dietary cholesterol comes from some foods, such as eggs, dairy products, meat, and shellfish.
In the past, dietary guidelines recommended limiting the consumption of dietary cholesterol to 300 mg/day. However, a review of current research shows no evidence that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease in healthy individuals.
Although dietary cholesterol has no proven effect on cardiovascular health, a person’s doctor may advise them to reduce their intake of saturated fat, and increase their intake of fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
Limiting dietary cholesterol
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) note that the body makes all the cholesterol it needs, which is a reason why medical professionals generally recommend a healthy diet with a minimum of dietary cholesterol. Such a diet may reduce the risk of CVD.
According to the AHA science advisory, diets such as the DASH or Mediterranean diet are examples of healthy eating patterns as they are low in dietary cholesterol. Such diets emphasize the following food groups:
– whole grains
– low or fat-free dairy
– lean proteins
– liquid vegetable oils
Routine blood tests are recommended to measure cholesterol levels because high cholesterol may not cause symptoms but can lead to health complications. For example, high blood cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis, which is a condition that develops when plaque builds up inside the blood vessels, causing the arteries to become narrow and hard.
Over time, atherosclerosis may mean a person is at higher risk for heart-related conditions, such as:
– heart attack
– carotid artery disease
– coronary heart disease
– chest pain (angina)
– sudden cardiac arrest
A person’s lifestyle, including diet, can affect their cholesterol levels, although there may be other factors, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NIH).
According to the NIH, risk factors for high blood cholesterol can include the following:
– a person’s age
– family history
– ethnicity or race
– biological sex
In some cases, doctors may recommend prescription medications to lower cholesterol.
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